It is time for your horse’s vaccinations. A vet is coming to the barn in the morning to vaccinate your horse and many others in the barn. You plan to go out to the barn in the evening knowing your horse may be a bit under the weather, but not expecting anything serious. When you arrive, you find your horse standing in the corner with his head hung low. When he turns around, you see a white stringy substance oozing from his eyes, and they are bloodshot and glassy. He is hot to the touch and just looks generally miserable. You decide to take his temperature. It is 102.9 degrees F (Fahrenheit). Since horses can have a normal resting temperature range of 99-101 degrees F, is this a high fever?
You go out to the pasture to get your horse and bring her in for the evening. As you approach, you notice a cut on your horse’s chest and a fair amount of blood though the wound does not appear to be bleeding too much at the moment. Your horse does not really want to move, but eventually she starts to walk back to the barn with you. You call the vet. She asks: What is your horse’s heart rate? Do you know why your vet asked what your horse’s heart rate is? Do you know how check your horse’s heart rate? (Technically pulse and heart rate are two related but different vital signs, but for most people they are referring to the same thing.)
In Scenario #1, you will only know if this is a high fever if you have previously taken your horse’s temperature at rest when he/she was healthy. If your horse’s normal resting temperature is 99 F, then 102.9 F is a lot more cause for concern than if your horse’s normal resting temperature is 101 F.
In Scenario #2, the answer is your vet is concerned about shock. Shock essentially means that something is preventing your horse’s body from delivering adequate blood supply to the tissues. This can be the result of an acute trauma and resultant blood loss. Also, a horse that has been sick for several days can go into shock. While the signs and symptoms of shock can vary, a rapid heart rate is usually present.
These scenarios are unfortunately not uncommon. There are many more common scenarios as well such as colic, getting a limb stuck in a fence, equine influenza, and trailering related accidents, including loading and unloading, just to name a few. Also, for some reason, things often seem to happen at 10pm in the evening, so your call to the vet starts with, “I am so sorry to bother you this late at night, but my horse…..”
It is extremely helpful to your vet when your description of the situation includes your horse’s vital signs. It can help him or her assess the severity and urgency of the situation, and potentially literally save your horse's life!
In short, I believe it is essential that every horse owner, including teenagers, know how to take their horse’s temperature, heart rate (pulse), and respiration rate as well as know how to listen for gut sounds and assess their horse’s mucous membranes to look for additional signs of shock and/or illness.
Here is free downloadable chart of the common equine vital signs and how to take them. Holistic Horse Bodyworks/Stretch Your Horse Helpful Links page.
Common Mistakes in Taking Vital Signs
Be aware of these common errors that can occur when taking your horse's vitals.
Practice taking your horse’s vital signs often so you know what is normal and so that taking them becomes second nature to you. Doing so can literally save your horse’s life!
It is hot (or getting hot) in many parts of the world, and riders are out and about enjoying riding their horse. Whether riding in shows and competitions, enjoying trail rides, taking lessons in an arena, sorting cows, racing at the track or feeling the thrill of a fast canter along the beach, there is no better time to own a horse!
However, high temperatures can pose a serious, sometimes deadly, risk to your horse. Heatstroke aka overheating or heat stress can occur not just from riding, but also from trailering, being in a hot stuffy stall or even being out in the field with the sun blaring down and no shade. I believe every rider should know the 5 key signs of heatstroke and what to do if this occurs. Equally important, every rider should know how to prevent it!
What is Heatstroke? What Can It Cause?
Heatstroke is not a stroke in the conventional sense of how you may think about a human having a stroke. Rather, it is the horse’s inability to cool him or herself down and get rid of excess heat. Like humans, horses have a natural cooling process in their body. This involves sweating and purging heat from nasal breathing/respiration (much like a dog may pant). But, in some cases of exposure to high heat levels, the horse may be unable to cool themselves. To try and compensate, the horse may sweat excessively, increase its respiration rate, and even redirect blood flow closer to the skin to aid in the cooling process. However, excess sweating can cause dehydration and loss of electrolytes, and redistributing blood flow closer to the skin can cause the brain and other organs to receive less oxygen. Left untreated, this can cause colic, seizures, severe muscle cramps and even death.
What Are the Signs of Heatstroke?
Here are 5 key signs.
What are the Treatments for Heatstroke?
The best treatment is actually not a treatment. It is prevention. Here are some prevention tips.
Have you ever dealt with a horse that suffered from heatstroke? What happened? Share your story on our Stretch Your Horse Facebook page.
Last Friday night, my horse, Rex, got very sick. We all dread making the Friday night phone call to our vet, but in this case, it was absolutely necessary.
A few days earlier, Rex had broken out in hives. There wasn't one square inch of him that did not have hives. It had been many years since he last had hives, but "dex" (dexamethasone, a prescription corticosteroid) usually took care of it in 2 or 3 days. It was now day 3, and he still had massive hives. He also had bug bites on his tummy and in between his front and back legs, (probably from culicoides), which I had been battling for the past 2 weeks.
I took him up to the barn to cold hose him. I put my hand on the inside of his hing leg, and his skin felt like it was on fire. He did not want to be touched, and I completely understood why. Then I took his temperature and discovered he had a fever. It was almost 3 degrees above what is normal for him.
As an aside, I believe every horse owner should know their horse's vital signs including temperature. Generally speaking, a horse's temperature range is between 99 and 101. It's important to know what's normal for your horse so you can determine the severity of a fever. Here's a link to My Helpful Links page where you can download a free chart I put together many years ago summarizing how to check your horse's vitals.
Ok....Back to the Rex story....
At that point, I called my vet. She said she would be there as soon as she finished up her current call. When she arrived approximately 90 minutes later, she asked detailed questions about the current situation and took Rex's vitals. His temperature had gone up another whole degree in 90 minutes. Quite frankly, Rex looked miserable.
After discussing various options, we decided to give Rex a Serum Amyloid A test.
Do You Know What a Serum Amyloid A (SAA) Test Is?
Give Me the Short Story....
SAA is a biomarker protein produced in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream when there is inflammation caused by an infection, trauma etc. In a normal healthy horse, SAA is found in very very low quantities and is not secreted until inflammation occurs. The normal SAA range is below 20 mg/L. (milligrams per liter) New devices enable your vet to test your horse's blood for the presence of SAA stall-side and get the results in about 8-10 minutes. This is in contrast to sending blood off to the lab to be tested for other infection markers that can take longer to show up. Research is ongoing to determine if and when SAA testing will supplant some forms of more traditional blood testing and when each is appropriate.
A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words....
SAA Production and Response (image by Tridelta Development Ltd)
Give Me The SAA Geeky (but not too geeky) Details....
SAA is a member of a group of proteins called Acute Phase Proteins which are thought to be part of the body’s basic first line defense against infection, disease or trauma. In response to a challenge by, for example, an infection, the body sends chemical messengers to the liver which then produces and releases SAA into the bloodstream to help fight off the challenge.¹ Researchers have discovered that when there is an infection or challenge to the immune system, SAA levels begin to rise almost immediately... and they can rise to levels hundreds of times above normal. SAA is extremely sensitive to the onset, duration, and end of the disease process.
The SAA test is a simple blood test performed stall-side with a reader that is about the size of a smartphone. The device is pictured above. It takes about 8-10 minutes to get the results. That means your vet will have additional valuable information about what is going on in your horse's body very quickly and can start treatment immediately. SAA is normally present only in very low levels. As mentioned above, in a healthy horse, the normal range of SAA is below 20 mg/L (milligrams per liter.) In response to a challenge, however, SAA is produced in very high levels often 600, 800 or even 1000 mg/L.
So, What Were the Results of Rex's SAA Test?
2150!! (Yes, I did say below 20 was normal.) In case you're wondering, I'm not missing a decimal place in the 2150. It was two thousand one hundred and fifty. Needless to say, we started treatment immediately! By the following morning, Rex had improved greatly. I am happy to report that 10 days later, Rex is feeling almost 100%. Phew!!
The Bottom Line.....
There is still much to be learned about SAA and its potential uses in identifying various diseases and medical conditions much earlier than was previously possible. Research is ongoing to determine if and when SAA testing (in horses, humans and other animals) will supplant some forms of more traditional blood testing and when each is appropriate.
Since this blog is personal, I want to say a BIG thank you to my vet for coming out on a Friday night and to my two good friends and barnmates who stayed with Rex and I and provided excellent support! I also want to thank the barn owner and the barn manager who helped me care for Rex and were my eyes and ears in between my multiple visits per day taking his temperature and monitoring him. I owe all of you big time! It truly takes a village!!
Reference 1: Tridelta Development Ltd website
Is Your Posture Impeding Your Horse's Performance? Top 3 Rider Posture Challenges, Impacts and Fixes
“Sit up straight.” “Roll your shoulders back.” “Don’t drop or round your shoulders.” “Arch your back just a tiny bit.” “Don’t arch your back so much.” “Lengthen the front of your body from your rib cage to your hips.”
We have all heard these directions from our trainers, from friends trying to help us, and/or read about the need to start or stop doing these things. Often they are easier said than done! But what is common thread among these things, and why are they important? Is it just to look professional or “pretty” when we ride?
The answer is good posture. This blog post will explore why correct rider posture is a very important aspect of helping your horse perform to best of their ability in a safe and comfortable manner. Correct rider posture can also reduce rider back and neck pain.
Horse Movement Fundamentals
Let's take a step back and look at a few fundamentals regarding how a healthy horse moves. The horse moves from back to front. With each step taken by the hind legs, energy is transmitted up the horse’s legs, through the horse’s back and the ring of muscles, and toward the horse's front end including the neck and head.
This forward energy can be blocked by the horse themselves simply due to the lateral (side to side) motion of their ribcage or the degree to which their back is not lifted (hollow) or feet issues. Other things such as poor saddle fit can also block this energy.
But, did you know that incorrect or poor rider posture is one of the major causes of blocked forward energy? Poor posture will impede your horse's performance and can cause back, neck, ribcage, and TMJ pain and tightness in your horse.
My good friend and excellent trainer Rebekah Larimer summed it up best, "It is the rider’s responsibility to learn how to get out of their horse’s way, not block their forward energy, and be able to properly influence them and work in partnership."
What is Correct Posture?
As seen on the right above, correct rider posture requires sitting with a neutral spine so your back is neither overarched nor completely flat but rather has a slight natural concavity. The shoulders, hips and heels are all aligned on the vertical. This means that if a vertical line was drawn between these three areas, it would intersect all 3 areas. The head, neck, shoulder and back are in a neutral position. They are not tipped back or slouched forward. The rider feels “solid from the base” and has relaxed hands, arms and fingers. Correct posture enables the horse’s natural back to front motion to be transmitted through its body in a relaxed manner.
In case you are panicking, don’t. This is easier said than done, but with practice and the correct stretching and strengthening exercises, you can make great strides (no pun intended) toward achieving correct posture.
Three Common Postural Challenges .... and Some Remedies
1) The Base: Let's Talk Pelvis
The first two common posture issues are a pelvis that is tipped too far forward (image A above) or too far backward (image B above). To test your pelvis, stand up (on level ground), and place your hands on your hip bones. Tilt your hips backward so the top of your hip bones move back toward your spine. You should feel your back flatten and your hips tuck under you. Then do the opposite. Move your hips forward so the top of the hip bones move toward the front of your body and your back arches. Do this several times and then find your natural resting position. Is your back overarched or too flat?
Do the same thing next time you are sitting in your saddle getting ready to ride. Is your pelvis in neutral, tipped forward or tipped back?
Another way to assess your pelvis is to do a rudimentary test of the curvature in your spine. Stand with your back up against a wall making sure your heels and upper back are firmly touching the wall. Assess the position of your lower back. Is it flat against the wall? Is there a pronounced arch? Is your spine in a neutral position with a just a slight curvature? Can you push your shoulders against the wall without arching your lower back?
Impact to Your Horse of Overarched Back/Pelvis Tipped Forward (anterior)
If your back if overarched, this means your seat bones point backwards toward the horse’s back legs. Rider’s with overarched backs tend to appear stiff or tense and tend to have stiff or locked hip joints making it hard to follow the horse’s motion. So, guess where the horse’s energy is sent in this scenario? Yup. You got it. Toward the hind end. An overarched back makes your horse work extra hard to keep the forward energy moving forward. It is like a salmon swimming upstream. It can also cause your horse to hollow their back. As you may recall, at the very beginning of this blog post, we said that a horse with a hollow back blocks the flow of energy forward. So, this is sort of double whammy!
I will discuss the impact of the backward (posterior) tipped pelvis in the next section since that is often accompanied by rounded shoulders.
2) Rounded Shoulders/Jutting Chin
This is the third common postural challenge many rider’s struggle with.
Many of us work at computers all day. Some of us like myself work on horses. Both of these activities can cause posture problems. Specifically, it can cause your shoulders to round forward, your neck to curve excessively when looking up and your head to be forward with a jutting chin. This is often accompanied by a pelvis that is tipped backward (posterior.)
Impact to Your Horse of Round Shoulders/ Jutting Chin/ Pelvis Tipped Back
Rounded shoulders are often accompanied by pelvis tipped toward the back of the body. This causes the rider’s weight to be distributed unevenly. The top of the rider’s body is usually slightly forward, the upper back is back behind the vertical, and the bottom of the rider’s body pushes down on the last third of the horse’s thoracic spine. The leg usually also moves forward. This causes the rider to be behind the motion, and imbalance in the horse. It pushes the horse onto the forehand and blocks the forward energy.
The other interesting thing that often happens to the round shouldered/ backward (posterior) tipped pelvis rider is that when rider tries to move their leg back into the correct position, it can cause the knee and ankle to hike up. This can cause loss of the stirrup (my own personal nemesis) and/or result in less effective leg aids.
In order to select the correct remedy for your posture problem, it is important to get an accurate evaluation of all of the aspects of your posture including your feet, legs, hips, pelvis, back, shoulders, ribs, chest, neck and head position. I suggest you see a physical therapist or chiropractor who is specifically skilled in postural assessment and treatment. Familiarity with riding is a big plus! Be sure they do not just treat you, but also teach you how to do the specific exercises to address your posture challenge.
That said, there are many do-it-yourselfers out there. Here are a few stretches and exercises that can potentially be beneficial. (Here comes the legal disclaimer.) These exercises are being provided for informational purposes only. This should not be construed as any type of medical advice. These exercises may or may not be appropriate for your individual situation and could cause harm if done incorrectly or if contraindicated. This is why I suggest seeking professional medical assistance as a first step.
For those who are round-shouldered like myself because I work on horses and at computer so I am in terrible ergonomic positions most of the day every day, lying over a roll with your arms in “stick ‘em up” is a great stretch for the pecs, upper back and neck muscles and the spine.
This stretch stretches the pectoral muscles in the front of your body which have become shortened due to being constricted and helps relieve the tension in the muscles in your upper back that have become overstretched.
I prefer to keep my legs straight when doing this stretch. However, then you must be careful that your back does not 'hollow out. " Start out with a rolled up towel under your back horizontally and gradually increase the size of the roll.
Here is a link that has great illustrations of the muscles the stick ‘em up stretch targets as well as more detailed instructions such as making sure you keep your chin slightly tucked so you are not arching your neck.
If your back is overarched, that means the muscles in front of your hips, aka the hip flexors, are probably tight. The hip flexors can also become tight from doing a lot of sitting in front of a computer all day. Tight hip flexors and an overarched back can also cause lower back pain.
This article provides a detailed explanation of the relationship between an overarched back and tight hip flexors as well as some stretching exercises to release the tension. Also, here is a link to a “brutal stretch” for the hip flexors.
There are pluses and minuses to doing “brutal stretches” versus more gentle, gradual stretches. I leave that choice to you and your health care professional.
The Bottom Line….
There is a direct correlation between your posture and your horse’s movement and performance. Correcting your posture challenges is not easy and takes dedication. However, if you commit to an improvement program, both you and your horse will enjoy even greater success and a more relaxed ride no matter what your riding discipline.
What is your posture challenge? What are you doing to correct it? Share your story here or on our Facebook page.
Ilene Nessenson, Certified Equine Bodyworker, is the creator of Stretch Your Horse, a 25 horse stretching video tutorial collection.